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As the leading manufacturer of high performance shock absorbers, KONI develops the technical features of its dampers by following a simple principle: to meet the diverse demands on its products with sophisticated mechanical solutions.

The everlasting problems with vehicle damping

Vehicle damping has always been a compromise between comfort and road-holding. An obvious example is a Formula 1 racing car which offers the best possible road-holding but with minimal comfort. With a daily driven vehicle, one expects to experience ultimate comfort, combined with safe road-holding. Minimum damping is required for your comfort whilst strong damping is needed for safe and stable driving. This conflict can not be solved with conventional dampers. No other damper system currently available can offer an adequate and affordable solution:

No real alternative

  • Position-dependent shock absorbers will give you extra comfort, as they allow more movement of your car, but as a result the road-holding is inferior. Sudden bumps in the road will still be very unpleasant.
  • Pneumatic and electronic adjustable shock absorbers may improve road-holding in the future. The disadvantage of such complex systems is that they are very expensive and time consuming to set up correctly.

Smart solution

KONl shock absorbers with Frequency Selective Damping (FSD) technology, have been specifically designed for personal and sport cars and they combine the ultimate in comfort and road-holding. FSD dampers are completely mechanical. There are no electrical components.


In standard shock absorbers, the main damping characteristic is defined by the oil flow (1) going through the piston assembly.

Combining it with the FSD feature, KONl added a special valve which is able to control a parallel oil flow next to the one going through the piston. This parallel oil flow (2) is closed by the FSD feature, giving a rise in damping force almost linear to the time that the piston is moving in one direction.

Put simply: the FSD feature is a hydraulic amplifier that delays the build up of pressure. One could say that an extra tuning option has been created in order to get the best possible combination of handling and comfort. Since it is an integrated part of the hydraulic valve system inside the damper, no additional cables, sensors or any other electronic devices are needed to operate an FSD damper.

FSD is the simplest and most economic way to significantly improve the ride and driving characteristics of every car; certainly in comparison with costly systems which work on the basis of computer technology, complex electronics and sensors.

FSD Principles

Comfort and handling can be split in two different frequency areas:

  • For comfort, with the suspension moving in a high frequency area (± 10 Hz), asking for low damping forces.
  • For handling, with the suspension moving in a low frequency area (± 1 Hz), asking for high damping forces.

By designing a damper that can change the damping force level in relation to the frequency of the movement, KONI has created the perfect damper, one which resolves the conflict between comfort and handling.